|Area: 181,040 km ²
Population: 15 million
Annual growth rate: 1.1%
Density: 80 inhabitants / km ²
Official Language: Khmer
Other languages spoken: French, English
Language (s) of business: English
Literacy rate: 73.6%
Religion: Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%.
Urban population: 22.2%
Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%,
Chinese 1%, other 4%.
Type of state: democratic constitutional monarchy.
Economy: Low-income economy dominated by agriculture and textiles
The country's citizens are called Cambodians or Khmers in reference to the Khmer ethnic group
The geography of Cambodia is shaped by the Mekong River (Khmer: Tonle Thom or Great River) and the Tonle Sap (river of fresh water), the main fishery resource. Cambodia is situated at low altitude that the country is largely at or below the level of the rivers. In the rainy season, the current is reversed and the Mekong River flows into the Tonle Sap Lake which greatly increases its surface area.
Economy: Agriculture remains the dominant economic sector (57.6% of the labor force and 33.4% of GDP). Cambodia's main industries are garments and tourism (1.7 million visitors in 2006). Despite the extreme poverty of much of the population (31% below the poverty line), Cambodia has since the late 1990's a strong economic development and benefit from the influx of international investment. Between 2004 and 2007, GDP of the Kingdom experienced an average growth of 10% per year. Despite this improvement, the per capita GDP of Cambodia remains, with only 773 dollars per year per capita, well below the regional average and the same level as many countries
August 11, 186 : French protectorate over Cambodia
The Kingdom of Cambodia, to escape the grip of Siam (now Thailand) and Annam (now Vietnam), asks for help to France. By the treaty of protectorate, King Norodom I refrain from any relationship with a foreign power without the agreement of France. In 1887, Cambodia will be incorporated into French Indochina and the king will lose all authority. The country regained its independence in 1953, during the reign of King Norodom Sihanouk, who became the Father of the Nation.
March 18, 1970: Coup in Cambodia
Marshal Lon Nol, backed by the United States, overthrew the monarchy and established a military regime in Cambodia. The regional context, dominated by the Vietnam War is then chaotic. Lon Nol is overthrown by the Khmer Rouge of Pol Pot five years later.
April 17, 1975: The fall of Phnom Penh
The Khmer Rouge seized Phnom Penh, the Cambodian capital, and their leader, Pol Pot, impose a dictatorial regime. The Khmer Rouge are held responsible for the deaths of nearly 2 million people. They will be driven out of Phnom Penh by Vietnamese forces in January 1979.Civil war continues between the Khmer Rouge and the government supported by Vietnam until a cease-fire was finally got under the supervision of the UN in October 1991.
|January 11, 1979: Pol Pot ousted
While the Vietnamese army drove Pol Pot from power, Khmer Rouge dissident activists form a new government. It displays a tragic toll estimated at around 2 million deaths, while there were only 7 million inhabitants.
The 1993 elections organized by the UN helped restore some semblance of normalcy. A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998 brought a new political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces. ...